Cochise’s war

Written April 8, 2016   The Apache Wars are well-known as the context behind Geronimo’s fame, and are often thought of as a continuous series of battles between Apaches and the United States. This is not wholly incorrect, but it presents an incomplete understanding of the events. In fact, the Apaches Wars might be more … Continue reading Cochise’s war

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Rations and social control in Spanish New Mexico

Written February 29, 2016   The reentry of the Spaniards into New Mexico in the 1690s was violent and expensive, despite the Spaniards’ alliance with certain Puebloan groups.[1] A hundred years later, the Spanish colonization of the Apaches and Comanches began with violence, too, but after high death tolls, that violence gave way to a … Continue reading Rations and social control in Spanish New Mexico

French and Algonquian Approaches to the Middle Ground: 1650 to 1700 on the Great Plains

Written September 6, 2015 Richard White’s The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 describes the creation of a new reality for the North American continent that came forth through the interaction of Native American, French, English, and Spanish cultures. White tells readers that “The American Republic succeeded in doing … Continue reading French and Algonquian Approaches to the Middle Ground: 1650 to 1700 on the Great Plains