the Washington “Redskins” football team as a cultural artifact of colonialism

[Written for HIST 518: Colonialism, WNMU, 3 May 2017] It's hard to say whether the ‘redskins’ mascot is emblematic of colonialism or postcolonialism, because depending on the perspective you take, it might be either. It is postcolonial because it could be considered a relic of colonization and the genocide of Native Americans by the Europeans … Continue reading the Washington “Redskins” football team as a cultural artifact of colonialism

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Context for Carlisle: Whiteness and Native Assimilation 1880-1900

Written November 7, 2015   It was the end of the Indian Wars. The buffalo were dead and the Indians were starving on their reservations[1]. The rations handed out on reservations by the federal government looked fiscally unsustainable. “After the conquest,” says historian Patricia Limerick, “Indians were a population in trouble, with massive unemployment and … Continue reading Context for Carlisle: Whiteness and Native Assimilation 1880-1900

The Early Steps of the Political Incorporation of New Mexico into the United States

Written March 13, 2016   When Mexico gained its independence in 1821, Mexico’s northern frontier floundered in the vacuum left by the absence of Spanish troops, money, and governance. The Mexican frontier became a convenient and increasingly lucrative target for the expanding United States. The region was poorly defended, poorly managed, disenchanted with its federal … Continue reading The Early Steps of the Political Incorporation of New Mexico into the United States

French and Algonquian Approaches to the Middle Ground: 1650 to 1700 on the Great Plains

Written September 6, 2015 Richard White’s The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 describes the creation of a new reality for the North American continent that came forth through the interaction of Native American, French, English, and Spanish cultures. White tells readers that “The American Republic succeeded in doing … Continue reading French and Algonquian Approaches to the Middle Ground: 1650 to 1700 on the Great Plains