Context for Carlisle: Whiteness and Native Assimilation 1880-1900

Written November 7, 2015   It was the end of the Indian Wars. The buffalo were dead and the Indians were starving on their reservations[1]. The rations handed out on reservations by the federal government looked fiscally unsustainable. “After the conquest,” says historian Patricia Limerick, “Indians were a population in trouble, with massive unemployment and … Continue reading Context for Carlisle: Whiteness and Native Assimilation 1880-1900

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Cochise’s war

Written April 8, 2016   The Apache Wars are well-known as the context behind Geronimo’s fame, and are often thought of as a continuous series of battles between Apaches and the United States. This is not wholly incorrect, but it presents an incomplete understanding of the events. In fact, the Apaches Wars might be more … Continue reading Cochise’s war

Rations and social control in Spanish New Mexico

Written February 29, 2016   The reentry of the Spaniards into New Mexico in the 1690s was violent and expensive, despite the Spaniards’ alliance with certain Puebloan groups.[1] A hundred years later, the Spanish colonization of the Apaches and Comanches began with violence, too, but after high death tolls, that violence gave way to a … Continue reading Rations and social control in Spanish New Mexico